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Putty 常見錯誤
Chapter 10: Common error messages

本章列出了一些共同的錯誤信息,這PuTTY及其相關工具可以產生,並解釋它們的含義更多的細節。

我們並不試圖列出所有的錯誤信息在這裡:還有很多不應該發生,有的應該是不言自明。如果你得到一個錯誤訊息,沒有列在本章中,哪些是你不明白,報告給我們一個錯誤(見附錄 B),我們會為它添加文檔。

10.1 ‘The server's host key is not cached in the registry’

This error message occurs when PuTTY connects to a new SSH server. Every server identifies itself by means of a host key; once PuTTY knows the host key for a server, it will be able to detect if a malicious attacker redirects your connection to another machine.

If you see this message, it means that PuTTY has not seen this host key before, and has no way of knowing whether it is correct or not. You should attempt to verify the host key by other means, such as asking the machine's administrator.

If you see this message and you know that your installation of PuTTY has connected to the same server before, it may have been recently upgraded to SSH protocol version 2. SSH protocols 1 and 2 use separate host keys, so when you first use SSH-2 with a server you have only used SSH-1 with before, you will see this message again. You should verify the correctness of the key as before.

See section 2.2 for more information on host keys.
此錯誤信息時出現的PuTTY連接到一個新的SSH服務器。每個服務器標識本身的手段,主機密鑰,一旦PuTTY知道一台服務器主機密鑰,它可以檢測一個惡意攻擊者重定向連接到另一台機器。

如果您看到此消息,它意味著PuTTY沒有見過這種主機密鑰之前,並沒有辦法知道是否是正確與否。你應該嘗試驗證主機密鑰通過其他方式,如要求機器的管理員。

如果你看到這條消息,你知道你安裝的PuTTY已連接到同一台服務器之前,它可能已被最近升級到SSH協議版本2。 SSH協議1和2使用單獨的主機密鑰,所以當你第一次使用SSH- 2與服務器你只有使用SSH- 1之前,你會看到這個消息。您應該驗證其正確性的關鍵和以前一樣。

參見第2.2節有關詳細信息,主機密鑰。


10.2 ‘WARNING - POTENTIAL SECURITY BREACH!’

This message, followed by ‘The server's host key does not match the one PuTTY has cached in the registry’, means that PuTTY has connected to the SSH server before, knows what its host key should be, but has found a different one.

This may mean that a malicious attacker has replaced your server with a different one, or has redirected your network connection to their own machine. On the other hand, it may simply mean that the administrator of your server has accidentally changed the key while upgrading the SSH software; this shouldn't happen but it is unfortunately possible.

You should contact your server's administrator and see whether they expect the host key to have changed. If so, verify the new host key in the same way as you would if it was new.

See section 2.2 for more information on host keys.
這條消息,其次是“服務器的主機密鑰不匹配一個PuTTY已緩存在註冊表中”,是指PuTTY已連接到SSH服務器之前,知道它的主機的關鍵是應該的,但發現一個不同的。

這可能意味著,惡意攻擊者已經取代您的服務器與一個不同的,或有重定向你的網絡連接到自己的機器。另一方面,它可能只是意味著你的服務器管理員意外地改變了鍵的同時提升SSH軟件,這是不應該的,但遺憾的是可能的。

您應該聯繫您的服務器的管理員,看看他們是否希望主機密鑰已經改變。如果是這樣,驗證新的主機密鑰以同樣的方式,你會如果它是新的。

參見第2.2節有關詳細信息,主機密鑰。

10.3 ‘Out of space for port forwardings’

PuTTY has a fixed-size buffer which it uses to store the details of all port forwardings you have set up in an SSH session. If you specify too many port forwardings on the PuTTY or Plink command line and this buffer becomes full, you will see this error message.

We need to fix this (fixed-size buffers are almost always a mistake) but we haven't got round to it. If you actually have trouble with this, let us know and we'll move it up our priority list.
PuTTY有一個固定大小的緩衝區,它用於存儲信息的所有端口forwardings你已經設定了在SSH會話。如果指定端口forwardings太多的PuTTY或原始的Plink命令行和該緩衝區已滿,你會看到此錯誤消息。

我們需要解決這個問題(固定大小的緩衝區幾乎都是錯誤的),但我們還沒有得到全面到它。如果你確實有這個問題,請告訴我們,我們將它移到了我們的優先次序。

10.4 ‘The first cipher supported by the server is ... below the configured warning threshold’
This occurs when the SSH server does not offer any ciphers which you have configured PuTTY to consider strong enough. By default, PuTTY puts up this warning only for single-DES encryption.

See section 4.18.6 for more information on this message.
這發生在SSH服務器不提供任何密碼,你已經配置PuTTY考慮夠強。默認情況下,PuTTY搭設這個警告只適用於單 DES加密。

參見4.18.6有關詳細信息,此消息。


10.5 ‘Server sent disconnect message type 2 (SSH_DISCONNECT_PROTOCOL_ERROR): "Too many authentication failures for root"’

This message is produced by an OpenSSH (or Sun SSH) server if it receives more failed authentication attempts than it is willing to tolerate. This can easily happen if you are using Pageant and have a large number of keys loaded into it. This can be worked around on the server by disabling public-key authentication or (for Sun SSH only) by increasing MaxAuthTries in sshd_config. Neither of these is a really satisfactory solution, and we hope to provide a better one in a future version of PuTTY.
此消息是由一個 OpenSSH(或Sun SSH)服務器,如果它受到更多的身份驗證嘗試失敗比它願意忍受。這可以很容易地發生,如果您使用的是佳麗,並有大量的密鑰加載到它。這可以被繞過在服務器上禁用公鑰認證或(僅適用於 Sun SSH)通過增加MaxAuthTries在sshd_config中。這些都不是一個真正令人滿意的解決方案,我們希望能提供一個更好的未來版本中的PuTTY。

10.6 ‘Out of memory’

This occurs when PuTTY tries to allocate more memory than the system can give it. This may happen for genuine reasons: if the computer really has run out of memory, or if you have configured an extremely large number of lines of scrollback in your terminal. PuTTY is not able to recover from running out of memory; it will terminate immediately after giving this error.

However, this error can also occur when memory is not running out at all, because PuTTY receives data in the wrong format. In SSH-2 and also in SFTP, the server sends the length of each message before the message itself; so PuTTY will receive the length, try to allocate space for the message, and then receive the rest of the message. If the length PuTTY receives is garbage, it will try to allocate a ridiculous amount of memory, and will terminate with an ‘Out of memory’ error.

This can happen in SSH-2, if PuTTY and the server have not enabled encryption in the same way (see question A.7.5 in the FAQ). Some versions of OpenSSH have a known problem with this: see question A.7.16.

This can also happen in PSCP or PSFTP, if your login scripts on the server generate output: the client program will be expecting an SFTP message starting with a length, and if it receives some text from your login scripts instead it will try to interpret them as a message length. See question A.7.6 for details of this.
這發生在PuTTY嘗試分配更多的內存比系統可以給它。這可能發生的真正原因:如果計算機真的耗盡內存,或者如果你已經配置了一個非常大的行數的回溯在你的終端。 PuTTY是無法恢復運行的內存不足,它會立即終止後,給這個錯誤。

然而,這種錯誤也發生在內存沒有用完可言,因為PuTTY接收數據格式錯誤。在SSH -2,並在SFTP,服務器發送的每個消息的長度之前,消息本身,因此PuTTY將收到的長度,盡量分配空間的消息,然後接收,其餘的消息。如果長度PuTTY接收是垃圾,它會嘗試分配一個荒謬的內存量,將終止與“內存不足”的錯誤。

這可以發生在SSH -2,如果PuTTY和服務器沒有啟用加密以同樣的方式(見問題 A.7.5在FAQ)。有些版本的OpenSSH有一個已知的問題與此:參見問題 A.7.16。

這也發生在PSCP或PSFTP,如果您的登錄腳本在服務器上生成的輸出:客戶端程序將預期 SFTP消息開始,長度,如果它收到一些文字,而不是從您的登錄腳本將嘗試解讀作為消息的長度。有關詳細信息,請參閱問題 A.7.6本。

10.7 ‘Internal error’, ‘Internal fault’, ‘Assertion failed’

Any error beginning with the word ‘Internal’ should never occur. If it does, there is a bug in PuTTY by definition; please see appendix B and report it to us.

Similarly, any error message starting with ‘Assertion failed’ is a bug in PuTTY. Please report it to us, and include the exact text from the error message box.
任何錯誤開頭所說的“內部”不應該發生的。如果是這樣,有一個錯誤,PuTTY的定義,請參閱附錄 B,並報告給我們。

同樣,任何錯誤信息開始以“斷言失敗”是一個錯誤的PuTTY。請報告給我們,包括確切的文本從錯誤消息框。

10.8 ‘Unable to use this private key file’, ‘Couldn't load private key’, ‘Key is of wrong type’

Various forms of this error are printed in the PuTTY window, or written to the PuTTY Event Log (see section 3.1.3.1) when trying public-key authentication, or given by Pageant when trying to load a private key.

If you see one of these messages, it often indicates that you've tried to load a key of an inappropriate type into PuTTY, Plink, PSCP, PSFTP, or Pageant.

You may have specified a key that's inappropriate for the connection you're making. The SSH-1 and SSH-2 protocols require different private key formats, and a SSH-1 key can't be used for a SSH-2 connection (or vice versa).

Alternatively, you may have tried to load an SSH-2 key in a ‘foreign’ format (OpenSSH or ssh.com) directly into one of the PuTTY tools, in which case you need to import it into PuTTY's native format (*.PPK) using PuTTYgen - see section 8.2.12.
各種形式的這個錯誤是印在PuTTY窗口,或寫入PuTTY事件日誌(見節3.1.3.1)時,試圖公鑰認證,或給予佳麗當試圖加載一個私鑰。

如果你看到這些消息之一,它往往表明您已經嘗試加載一個關鍵的不適當的輸入到PuTTY,原始的Plink,PSCP,PSFTP,或佳麗。

您可能已經指定了一個鍵的不適當的連接你決策。在SSH- 1和SSH -2協議需要不同的私鑰格式和SSH -1鍵不能用於 SSH -2連接(反之亦然)。

另外,您可能已經嘗試加載 SSH -2的關鍵在一個“洋”格式(OpenSSH或者ssh.com)直接為一體的PuTTY工具,在這種情況下你需要導入到PuTTY的原始格式(*. PPK )使用PuTTYgen - 見第8.2.12。

10.9 ‘Server refused our public key’ or ‘Key refused’

Various forms of this error are printed in the PuTTY window, or written to the PuTTY Event Log (see section 3.1.3.1) when trying public-key authentication.

If you see one of these messages, it means that PuTTY has sent a public key to the server and offered to authenticate with it, and the server has refused to accept authentication. This usually means that the server is not configured to accept this key to authenticate this user.

This is almost certainly not a problem with PuTTY. If you see this type of message, the first thing you should do is check your server configuration carefully. Common errors include having the wrong permissions or ownership set on the public key or the user's home directory on the server. Also, read the PuTTY Event Log; the server may have sent diagnostic messages explaining exactly what problem it had with your setup.
各種形式的這個錯誤是印在PuTTY窗口,或寫入PuTTY事件日誌(見節3.1.3.1)時,試圖公鑰認證。

如果你看到這些消息之一,它意味著PuTTY已派出一個公鑰到服務器,並表示願意與它進行驗證,並且服務器拒絕接受認證。這通常意味著該服務器未配置為接受這個關鍵來驗證該用戶。

這幾乎是肯定沒有問題的PuTTY。如果看到這種類型的消息,你首先應該做的是仔細檢查你的服務器配置。常見的錯誤包括有錯誤的權限或所有權上設置的公共密鑰或用戶的主目錄在服務器上。此外,閱讀PuTTY事件日誌,服務器可能發送診斷信息,解釋究竟是什麼問題,它與您的設置。

10.10 ‘Access denied’, ‘Authentication refused’

Various forms of this error are printed in the PuTTY window, or written to the PuTTY Event Log (see section 3.1.3.1) during authentication.

If you see one of these messages, it means that the server has refused all the forms of authentication PuTTY has tried and it has no further ideas.

It may be worth checking the Event Log for diagnostic messages from the server giving more detail.

This error can be caused by buggy SSH-1 servers that fail to cope with the various strategies we use for camouflaging passwords in transit. Upgrade your server, or use the workarounds described in section 4.23.1 and possibly section 4.23.2.
各種形式的這個錯誤是印在PuTTY窗口,或寫入PuTTY事件日誌(見節3.1.3.1)在身份驗證。

如果你看到這些消息之一,這意味著服務器拒絕所有形式的認證PuTTY已經嘗試,它沒有進一步的想法。

它可能是值得檢查事件日誌中的診斷消息從服務器提供更多的細節。

這個錯誤可能是由馬車 SSH -1的服務器上,無法應付的各種戰略,我們使用密碼在傳輸過程中的偽裝。升級你的服務器,或者使用的解決方法描述,並可能在第4.23.1節4.23.2。

10.11 ‘Incorrect CRC received on packet’ or ‘Incorrect MAC received on packet’

This error occurs when PuTTY decrypts an SSH packet and its checksum is not correct. This probably means something has gone wrong in the encryption or decryption process. It's difficult to tell from this error message whether the problem is in the client, in the server, or in between.

A known server problem which can cause this error is described in question A.7.16 in the FAQ.
這個錯誤發生在一個 SSHPuTTY解密數據包,它的校驗和不正確的。這可能意味著出了問題,在加密或解密過程。這很難說,從這個錯誤信息問題是否在客戶端,在服務器中,或在兩者之間。

已知服務器的問題,可能導致此錯誤的描述問題 A.7.16中的常見問題。

10.12 ‘Incoming packet was garbled on decryption’

This error occurs when PuTTY decrypts an SSH packet and the decrypted data makes no sense. This probably means something has gone wrong in the encryption or decryption process. It's difficult to tell from this error message whether the problem is in the client, in the server, or in between.

If you get this error, one thing you could try would be to fiddle with the setting of ‘Miscomputes SSH-2 encryption keys’ on the Bugs panel (see section 4.23.5).

Another known server problem which can cause this error is described in question A.7.16 in the FAQ.
這個錯誤發生在一個 SSHPuTTY解密數據包和解密數據是沒有意義的。這可能意味著出了問題,在加密或解密過程。這很難說,從這個錯誤信息問題是否在客戶端,在服務器中,或在兩者之間。

如果你得到這個錯誤,有一點你可以嘗試將是擺弄設立“Miscomputes SSH -2加密鍵的面板上的錯誤(見第4.23.5)。

另一個已知服務器的問題,可能導致此錯誤的描述問題 A.7.16中的常見問題。

10.13 ‘PuTTY X11 proxy: various errors’

This family of errors are reported when PuTTY is doing X forwarding. They are sent back to the X application running on the SSH server, which will usually report the error to the user.

When PuTTY enables X forwarding (see section 3.4) it creates a virtual X display running on the SSH server. This display requires authentication to connect to it (this is how PuTTY prevents other users on your server machine from connecting through the PuTTY proxy to your real X display). PuTTY also sends the server the details it needs to enable clients to connect, and the server should put this mechanism in place automatically, so your X applications should just work.

A common reason why people see one of these messages is because they used SSH to log in as one user (let's say ‘fred’), and then used the Unix su command to become another user (typically ‘root’). The original user, ‘fred’, has access to the X authentication data provided by the SSH server, and can run X applications which are forwarded over the SSH connection. However, the second user (‘root’) does not automatically have the authentication data passed on to it, so attempting to run an X application as that user often fails with this error.

If this happens, it is not a problem with PuTTY. You need to arrange for your X authentication data to be passed from the user you logged in as to the user you used su to become. How you do this depends on your particular system; in fact many modern versions of su do it automatically.
這個家庭的錯誤報告時 PuTTY是做X轉發。他們發回的X應用程序上運行 SSH服務器,它通常會報告錯誤給用戶。

當PuTTY使X轉發(見3.4節)它創建了一個虛擬的X顯示 SSH服務器上運行。這顯示需要身份驗證連接到它(這是多麼PuTTY阻止其他用戶在您的服務器計算機的連接,通過PuTTY代理到真正的X顯示)。PuTTY也發送服務器的詳細信息需要,使客戶端連接,服務器應該把這種機制自動進行,所以你的X應用程序應該只是工作。

一個常見的原因之一,人們看到這些消息,是因為他們使用SSH登錄作為一個用戶(讓我們說“弗雷德”),然後用Unix的su命令成為另一個用戶(通常為“根”)。原來的用戶,“弗雷德”,已經訪問 X認證數據提供了SSH服務器,可以運行 X應用程序是通過 SSH連接轉發。但是,第二個用戶(“根”)不自動具有身份驗證數據傳遞給它,所以試圖運行一個 X應用程序作為該用戶經常失敗,這個錯誤。

如果發生這種情況,這不是一個問題,用PuTTY。您需要安排您的X認證數據傳遞來自用戶的身份登錄,您的用戶,您使用su成為。你如何做到這一點取決於你的特定系統的,事實上許多現代版本的蘇做自動。

10.14 ‘Network error: Software caused connection abort’

This is a generic error produced by the Windows network code when it kills an established connection for some reason. For example, it might happen if you pull the network cable out of the back of an Ethernet-connected computer, or if Windows has any other similar reason to believe the entire network has become unreachable.

Windows also generates this error if it has given up on the machine at the other end of the connection ever responding to it. If the network between your client and server goes down and your client then tries to send some data, Windows will make several attempts to send the data and will then give up and kill the connection. In particular, this can occur even if you didn't type anything, if you are using SSH-2 and PuTTY attempts a key re-exchange. (See section 4.19.2 for more about key re-exchange.)

(It can also occur if you are using keepalives in your connection. Other people have reported that keepalives fix this error for them. See section 4.13.1 for a discussion of the pros and cons of keepalives.)

We are not aware of any reason why this error might occur that would represent a bug in PuTTY. The problem is between you, your Windows system, your network and the remote system.
這是一個一般性錯誤所生產的Windows網絡代碼的時候它殺死已建立的連接由於某種原因。例如,它可能發生,如果你拉網線出了回以太網連接的計算機,或者如果Windows有任何其他類似的理由相信整個網絡已經成為不可訪問。

Windows也會產生這個錯誤,如果它已放棄了對機器的另一端連接的不斷應對它。如果你的客戶端之間的網絡和服務器停機和您的客戶端,然後試圖發送一些數據時,Windows會多次嘗試發送數據,然後將放棄並殺死連接。特別是,這可能發生,即使你沒有輸入任何東西,如果你使用的是SSH -2和PuTTY嘗試一個關鍵再交流。 (見4.19.2了解更多關於關鍵再交流。)

(它也可能發生如果您使用持久連接在連接,其他人報告說,保持活動為他們解決這個錯誤,見4.13.1節為討論的優點和缺點的持久連接。)

我們不知道任何原因這個錯誤可能發生的將是一個錯誤的PuTTY。問題是你們之間,你的Windows系統,網絡和遠程系統。

10.15 ‘Network error: Connection reset by peer’

This error occurs when the machines at each end of a network connection lose track of the state of the connection between them. For example, you might see it if your SSH server crashes, and manages to reboot fully before you next attempt to send data to it.

However, the most common reason to see this message is if you are connecting through a firewall or a NAT router which has timed the connection out. See question A.7.10 in the FAQ for more details. You may be able to improve the situation by using keepalives; see section 4.13.1 for details on this.

Note that Windows can produce this error in some circumstances without seeing a connection reset from the server, for instance if the connection to the network is lost.
這個錯誤發生在機器兩端的網絡連接丟失跟踪國家在它們之間的連接。例如,您可能會看到它,如果你的SSH服務器崩潰,並且設法重新啟動之前充分下次嘗試將數據發送到它。

然而,最常見的原因是看到這個消息,如果你正在連接通過防火牆或NAT路由器連接已超時了。見問題 A.7.10中常見問題的更多細節。您可以改善這種情況使用持久連接,見第4.13.1詳情在此。

請注意,Windows可以產生這種錯誤在某些情況下沒有看到一個連接復位服務器,例如如果連接到網絡的丟失。

10.16 ‘Network error: Connection refused’

This error means that the network connection PuTTY tried to make to your server was rejected by the server. Usually this happens because the server does not provide the service which PuTTY is trying to access.

Check that you are connecting with the correct protocol (SSH, Telnet or Rlogin), and check that the port number is correct. If that fails, consult the administrator of your server.
這個錯誤意味著網絡連接PuTTY試圖使你的服務器是服務器拒絕。通常這種情況發生,因為服務器不提供服務,PuTTY是試圖訪問。

檢查您是否連接正確的協議(SSH,telnet或rlogin),並檢查端口號是正確的。如果失敗,請諮詢您的服務器管理員。

10.17 ‘Network error: Connection timed out’

This error means that the network connection PuTTY tried to make to your server received no response at all from the server. Usually this happens because the server machine is completely isolated from the network, or because it is turned off.

Check that you have correctly entered the host name or IP address of your server machine. If that fails, consult the administrator of your server.

Unix also generates this error when it tries to send data down a connection and contact with the server has been completely lost during a connection. (There is a delay of minutes before Unix gives up on receiving a reply from the server.) This can occur if you type things into PuTTY while the network is down, but it can also occur if PuTTY decides of its own accord to send data: due to a repeat key exchange in SSH-2 (see section 4.19.2) or due to keepalives (section 4.13.1).
這個錯誤意味著網絡連接PuTTY試圖使您的服務器沒有收到回應所有從服務器。通常這是因為在服務器計算機是完全隔離的網絡,或者是因為它處於關閉狀態。

檢查您是否正確輸入主機名稱或IP地址的服務器計算機。如果失敗,請諮詢您的服務器管理員。

UNIX也產生這個錯誤,當它試圖發送數據了一個連接,與服務器的聯繫已經完全失去了在連接過程中。 (有一個延遲的分鐘之前的Unix放棄在收到答复從服務器)可能會發生這種事情,如果你輸入成PuTTY,而在網絡出現故障,但它也可能發生,如果PuTTY決定它自己的協議發送數據:由於重複密鑰交換在SSH- 2(見第4.19.2)或由於持久連接(第4.13.1)。

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